MARC ANDRÉ MEYERS
I. SUMMARY: CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENCE
Marc André Meyers is a Distinguished Professor in Materials Science at the University of California, San Diego. This is the highest professorial level in the UC system and represents an honor that is reserved for only a small fraction of the tenured faculty. Throughout his career, he received a number of important awards. The most prestigious of these, the Acta Materialia Materials and Society Award, which was bestowed in 2010, has a most distinguished list of recipients that includes global leaders in the materials science field. The other awards are from Europe (Humboldt Society Senior Scientist Award in Metal Physics, Germany, Heyn Medal (highest award of the German Materials Society), and J. S. Rinehart Award from the DYMAT Association), China (Lee Hsun Lecture Award from the Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and US (TMS -The Metals, Materials and Minerals Society, one of the three principal materials societies in the US) Educator Award, ASM Albert Sauveur Accomplishment Award, Albert White Educator Award, SMD/TMS Distinguished Scientist and Distinguished Service Awards). He is a Fellow of TMS, APS, and ASM International (One of the three principal materials societies in the US). He is also the co-recipient, with D. Benson, E. Bringa, V. Lubarda, and S. Traiviratana of the JOM (TMS) best paper award in structural materials. In 2011 he was elected Corresponding Member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences.
Professor Marc André Meyers made important contributions in the mechanical behavior of materials. Within this field, he has focused on four areas:
a) Nanocrystalline materials.
b) Biological materials;
He has applied Materials Science principles to biological materials with great success, uncovering important mechanisms and strategies employed by nature which are being researched in the new field of biomimetics. This approach, using the highly developed experimental characterization capabilities developed by MSE, is yielding a cornucopia of new information on biological materials that is indeed enriching biology and expanding the frontiers of MSE. He has just finished a textbook, Biological Materials Science, focusing on biological (or natural) materials, biomaterials and bioinspired materials.
c) Dynamic behavior of materials
This comprises deformation, fracture, fragmentation, shear localization, chemical reactions under extreme conditions and processing (combustion synthesis; shock compaction; explosive welding and fabrication; shock and shear synthesis of novel materials). The underlying unifying theme is the high rate at which events occur. He initiated this work in 1972 and dedicated forty uninterrupted years of research to this field. He made important strides to unify the field, by emphasizing the basic physical and chemical processes that the different phenomena have in common. Indeed, he has defined the field through his now classic book, Dynamic Behavior of Materials.
d) Processing of materials.
Figure 1: Collaborators in 1998-2016 period
His global network of collaborators is presented in Figure 1. Some of his highly cited contributions are listed below:
3. Meyers MA, Mishra A, Benson DJ, Mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials PROGRESS IN MATERIALS SCIENCE Vol. 51, PP. 427-556, 2006, this overview article is used extensively in the materials community, ~2,700 citations (on google scholar)
4. Meyers MA, Voehringer O, Lubarda VA, The onset of twinning in metals: A constitutive description , ACTA MATERIALIA Vol. 49 PP. 4025-4039. ~800 citations (on googlescholar)
6. Andrade U. R. , Meyers MA, Vecchio KS, et al., Dynamic Recrystallization In High-Strain, High-Strain-Rate Plastic-Deformation Of Copper , ACTA METALLURGICA ET MATERIALIA Vol, 42 PP. 3183-3195, 1994, 300 citations (on google scholar)
II. CLASSES TAUGHT
Marc Meyers taught a wide variety of classes at four institutions of higher learning. These courses were attended by thousands of students.
IME, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Mechanical metallurgy I
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
Properties of materials
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology
Strength of materials
U. of California, San Diego
Elements of Materials Science
Mechanics 1: Statics
Mechanics of Materials
Solids Mechanics II
Mechanical Behavior of Materials
Imperfections in Solids
Dynamic Behavior of Materials
Bioinspired and Biological Materials
Mechanical Properties of Nanomaterials
Over the past forty years, M. A. Meyers has been funded by the U.S. Army Research Office, Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, US Army Research Laboratory, Japan MITI, German Humboldt Foundation, UC Office of the President, DARPA, and Department of Energy. His current programs support a considerable number graduate students. Approximately thirty-five Ph.D.s and numerous M. Sc. were granted under his supervision. Additionally, over ten Post-Doctoral researchers worked with him. These research activities have led to the publication of approximately 410 papers. He has an ISI H index of 55, and ~12,000 citations. From 2011 on, his work was cited over 1,000 times/year. Figure 2 shows the number of publications/year and citations/year since 1998. Although these statistics do not express the quality and significance of M. Meyers’ contributions, they serve to assess his level of activity. This reflects the breath of contributions by Prof. Meyers.
Figure 2. ISI (web of Science-May 2017) plots showing (a) publications/year since 1997 and (b) citations per year since 1997.
Highlighted below are some of his most recognized contributions in the field of dynamic behavior of materials:
· In his Ph. D. thesis, he proposed that the shock front in polycrystalline aggregates showed irregularities in position and pressure due to elastic and plastic anisotropy. He quantified these predictions and wrote two analytical papers on the subject. His attempts at verifying the effect experimentally failed, but recent scientific interest on the topic has led to measurements and computations that confirm the effect.
· An experimental method for the establishment of the kinetics and nucleation time for martensite. Using reflected stress waves, Meyers and students were able to establish the kinetics of athermal martensitic transformations. This technique was extended to ultrashort times and the nucleation time was established ( 20-50 ns).
· Dynamic recrystallization at high strain rates, This concept, initially received with considerable skepticism, is being recognized by the community as a significant contribution. It has important bearing on shear localization in metals.
· A model for plastic deformation at the shock front. He modified the Smith interface in order to account for the generation of dislocations. No supersonic dislocations are required in this model. This model has resisted the test of time and is well known.
· Mechanism for solid-liquid reactions in shock -induced chemistry [with K. S. Vecchio and L. H. Yu]. A similar mechanism seems to operate in intense shear and combustion synthesis. This new mechanism was documented and modeled analytically.
· Experimental and analytical investigation of the self-organization of shear bands in metals, ceramics, and granular media. With V. Nesterenko and other colleagues, he investigated the spacing of shear bands. They were able to conclude that this spacing is characteristic and evolves with the growth of shear bands. This work is reviewed in the recent book authored by Dr. T. Wright. This work has stimulated investigations in China and Israel.
· A model for the formation of annealing twins in metals. This work is widely cited in the literature. Key researchers have carried out experiments and analyses; there seems to be evidence for this mechanism, called "pop-out" mechanism.
· A mechanism for the effect of grain size on the yield stress of metals. This paper is described in some detail in the top text on interfaces. This model was recently extended to the nanocrystalline domain.
· He proposed a constitutive description of the slip-twinning transition.
· With V. Lubarda, he proposed a mechanism for the growth of nanovoids using a new typed of dislocation shear loop. It is interesting to notice that, although voids have been studied at great length, their growth by dislocations had not heretofore been explained. Through a series of papers using primarily molecular dynamics, he and coworkers demonstrated that the growth of voids can be explained by the emission of shear loops.
· He discovered pressure-shear amorphization in silicon subjected to laser-induced shock compression.
Professor Meyers embarked, in the past fifteen years, into two new and exciting research directions: biological materials and ultrafine grained and nanocrystalline metals. He is focusing on the mechanical behavior of these materials and has made discoveries in this field that are receiving considerable recognition in the press. These studies have as objective the development of new approaches for the synthesis of complex materials of the future.
· Toucan beak
· Skin deformation mechanisms.
· Fish scales.
· Bouligand structures.
Professor Meyers is also active in nanocrystalline materials and is carrying out research on ECAP to create ultrafine grained structures. His primary focus is to explain how the grain structure is formed by extreme plastic deformation. With D. Benson and A. Mishra, he published a major overview (129 pages) on the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline materials.
His major contribution in this domain are:
· Grain size effects
· Evolution of microstructure and ultrafine grain formation.
· Bouligand structures.
In the field of synthesis and processing of materials, he contributed significantly to novel methodologies and provided a theoretical underpinning:
· He developed a new method for the densification of combustion synthesis products involving a high-speed forging process which enables ceramics to be deformed while still hot from the exothermic reaction.
· He was the first to use a double tube technique to shock consolidate metal powders. In so doing, the Mach stem was eliminated and a higher pressure could be concomitantly applied.
II. ACTIVITIES IMPACTING SOCIETY
Professor Meyers has exercised leadership throughout his entire career by initiating and taking an active part in a number of important organizational/administrative responsibilities.
As advisor to the Director, Materials Science Division he was actively engaged in the management of many Army supported research projects in the area of Mechanical Behavior of Materials.
Additional organizational activities:
IV. BOOK WRITING/EDITING.
He wrote four books that have been adopted as texts in universities and research laboratories worldwide. These books were well received by the community (over 1000 citations reported by Institute of Scientific Information-ISI) and over 10,000 copies were sold. Additionally, he co-edited seven books.
· Biological Materials Science: Biological Materials, Biomaterials, and Bioinspired Materials, (with P.-Y. Chen as co-author)( Cambridge U. Press, 2014).
· Dynamic Behavior of Materials (J. Wiley, 1994). This book was well received by the community (2,300 citations in google scholar) and over 2,700 copies were sold. It was translated into Chinese. It is used as a text and reference work at research laboratories and universities worldwide. It presents a unified vision of the field emphasizing the fundamental mechanisms. The treatment is a balance of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and mechanics.
· Mechanical Behavior of Materials (Cambridge U. Press, 2008; Prentice Hall, 1999), with K. K. Chawla. (1,400 citations in google scholar) This book is being used as a senior and graduate text at a number of universities; it is based on an earlier text, with the same co-author, on mechanical metallurgy. Sales of over 8,000 volumes. Second edition, with a significant biological component, was published by Cambridge University Press in October 2008. CUP’s Singapore office has launched the international edition, primarily intended for the Asian market. Translation into Chinese 2017.
· Mechanical Metallurgy (Prentice Hall, 1984) and its predecessor, ‘Principios de Metalurgia Mecanica’, (Blucher, 1982). The Portuguese version of the book was written in the late 70s, when Prof. Meyers started his professional career at the Military Institute of Engineering, Brazil. The Portuguese edition has been completely sold out (2,500 copies) and was widely used in that country. The English version has been very successful, with over 4,000 copies sold. This book was translated into Chinese and is widely used in that country.
· Mechanics and Materials: Fundamentals and Linkages, co-edited by R. W. Armstrong and H. O. K. Kirchner, contains the principal contributions of the Institute for Mechanics and Materials summer schools. Professor Meyers also authored two extensive chapters in this book (adding up to over 100 pages). This book contains chapters by the foremost authorities in the field and is one of the important sources of information in the Mechanics and Materials field.
· Frontiers in Materials Technologies, co-edited with O. Inal (Prentice Hall, 1985). This book, the result of a distinguished lecture series organized in New Mexico, contains an outstanding collection of contribution by highly respected authorities (Thomas, Gilman, Grant, Heuer, Cohen, Kelly, Dingle, Geballe).
· Five Explomet conference proceedings. Each volume averaged one thousand pages. These proceedings were published by major publishers (Plenum, Elsevier) and constitute an important assessment of the advancing knowledge in the field of dynamic behavior of materials. The proceedings of the EXPLOMET 1980 conference were translated into Russian and constitute a widely used source of information.
The following awards were received by M. Meyers:
· 2017 George Duvall Shock Compression Science Award, APS
· 2016 Charles Barrett Silver Medal, Rocky Mountain ASM Chapter
· 2015 Albert Easton White Award, ASM International (one of the three principal materials societies in the US)
· 2014 Heyn Medal, German Materials Society (Highest award by DGM).
· 2013 Educator Award, TMS (one of the three principal materials societies in the US)
· 2011 Fellow Award, TMS.
· 2011 Fellow, American Physical Society.
· 2011 Albert Sauveur Award, ASM International, USA.
· 2010 Acta Materialia Materials and Society Award. This is an important accolade that has been bestowed, in the past years, to highly visible researchers occupying positions of leadership in laboratories. The criteria for nomination and selection are either outstanding career contributions to understanding of the relations between materials technology and societal interests or contributions to materials technology that have had major impact on society. The award will not necessarily be made in alternate years on the "understanding" and "impact" criteria and the judges may recognize a combination of qualifications in both areas. All past recipients are members of their respective national academies. They include Dr. Hecker (past Director, LANL), Dr. A. Romig (CTO, SNL), Dr. B. Rath (Associate Director of Research, Naval Research Office), Dr. P. Chaudhari (Director for Research, IBM), and Dr. D. Apelian (past president, TMS).
· 2010, Best Paper Award in Structural Materials, JOM/TMS (paper title: the Role of Dislocations in the Growth of Nanosized Voids in Ductile Failure of Metals; authors: Marc A. Meyers, Sirirat Traiviratana, V.A. Lubarda, David J. Benson, and Eduardo M. Bringa
· 2009-The John S. Rinehart Award bestowed by the Dymat Association (centered in Europe). This has been a global award for research in the field of dynamic behavior of materials. Prof. John Field, Cambridge U. and Prof. Meyers are the 2009 recipients. This award was given at the triennial meeting, in Brussels (Sept. 7, 2009).
· Visiting Distinguished Professor, Chinese Academy of Sciences
· 2008-Honorary Professor, Harbin Engineering U., Harbin, China
· 2008-Lee Hsun Lecture Award, Institute for Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
· 2008-Distinguished Service Award, Structural Materials Division, The Metals, Minerals, and Materials Society (TMS).
· 2008-Honorary Citizen, João Monlevade, Minas Gerais, Brazil
· 2003-Distinguished Materials Scientist/Engineer Award, Structural Materials Division, The Metals, Minerals, and Materials Society (TMS).
· 1999 TMS Annual Meeting Tutorial Lecture: Dynamic Behavior of Materials
· 1997 Humboldt Senior Scientist Award, Germany. This is a very prestigious international award. Approximately one hundred and twenty Senior Scientist Awards (in all areas of science and from the entire world) are given annually by the Humboldt Foundation of Germany. This award was given in the field of Metal Physics.
· 1996- Fellow, ASM International
· 1974 - Philipson prize (best student), Dept. of Chem. E. and Met., University of Denver.
· 1969 - Top tenth graduate, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
· 1966 - Top tenth graduate, R.O.T.C., Minas Gerais, Brazil.
· 1964 - First Prize, Alliance Française, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Additionally, Professor Meyers has given numerous invited and keynote lectures. Some of these are highlighted below:
2015 Plenary Talk, Sixth International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials and Tissues, Hawaii (Elsevier)
2014 Plenary talk, Hopkinson Centennial Symposium, Cambridge, UK
Midwest mechanics Seminar series
2011 Keynote talk, Fourth International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials and Tissues, Hawaii (Elsevier)
1997-2014 –Seventeen Invited Talks, TMS/AIME Annual Meetings
2010-Plenary Lecture, NanoSPD 5, Nanjing, China
2012- Midwest Mechanics Lecture Series Speaker
2009-Keynote Talk, Third International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials and Tissues, Clearwater Florida (Elsevier)
2009: Invited talk, APS Topical Conference on Shock Compression in Condensed Matter
2007-Invited Talk, Pacific Rim Conference on Materials, Jeju Island, S. Korea
1994, 1997, 2000, 2003 - Member, Advisory Board, DYMAT Journal
2002, 2007, 2008- Invited Keynote Talks, Annual Meeting, Brazilian Society for Metals and Materials
2001-Invited Talk, Fourth International Symposium on Impact Engineering Impact Conference, Kumamoto, Japan
1997-Invited Talk, Second Euroconference and International Symposium on Material Instabilities in Deformation and Fracture, Tessaloniki, Greece.
1994 - Invited Lecturer - EURODYMAT 94, Oxford, and Member of Intl. Advisory Board.
1992 - Invited Speaker, 2nd Intl. Symp. On Intense Dynamic Loading and Its Effects, June 9-12, Chengdu, China.
1992 - Co-organizer and co-editor (with R.W. Armstrong, R. Batra, and T.W. Wright) Symposium “Shear Instabilities and Viscoplastic Theories,” SES, Sept. 1992, published as Vol. 17, Mech. of Matls., pp. 83-327 (1994).
1989 - Technical Program Committee Member and Invited Speaker, American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter.
1989 - Member, International Advisory Committee, X International Conference on High-Energy Rate Fabrication, Yugoslavia.
1987 - Member, International Scientific Board, International Conference on Impact Loading and Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Bremen, Germany, May.
1986 - Member, International Advisory Committee, IX International Conference on High-Energy Rate Fabrication, Novosibirsk, USSR, August.
VII. PUBLICATIONS (~440 Journal Articles, Conference Proceedings, Book Chapters)